Have I missed anything?
Let me know!
Low Dose Naltrexone Clinical Trials
Medical professionals and patients should rest assured there is
now significant research into LDN occurring around the
Pilot trial of low dose naltrexone and quality of life in
Bruce A.C. Cree *, Elena Kornyeyeva, Douglas S. Goodin
University of California, San Francisco. Patient
funded trial completed 2008.
Published in Annals of Neurology 2010.
Full Text Pre-Publication
Presented at AAN 2008, and MS World Congress 2008.
Left: PES=pain effects scale
Right: MHI=mental health inventory
Low-dose Naltrexone as a treatment for multiple sclerosis.
Dr Tom Gihooly on the state of LDN research.
British Journal of
Neuroscience Nursing, Nov 2009 v5 n11
Four LDN Studies Presented at the 2008 MS
World Congress Meeting
9/22/08 Elaine Moore
reports on the important MS/LDN studies at Penn State
University of California.
Low Dose Naltrexone: Hope for PPMS
9/18/08 Maija Haavisto
reports on the Italian human trial 6 month report.
A pilot trial of low-dose naltrexone in primary progressive
First LDN/MS trial data to be published. J. Mult. Scler. Sept 08
Pilot multi-center study of low dose naltrexone in primary progressive
multiple sclerosis University of Milan.
Results presented at the American Academy of Neurology; ECTRIMS.
doctor is raising money to fund LDN drug trial for MS
At the 2008 LDN conference, Dr. Gihooly reported this trial is nearing
National MS Society clinical Update on LDN
Links to the research mentioned are available above.
Multiple Sclerosis Clinic
The first trial of LDN
for Multiple Sclerosis. 2004, Germany.
Naltrexone for the Treatment of Fibromyalgia
Stanford Medical Center. Recruiting patients that live near
The Mali HIV+ AIDS LDN Initiative
Dr. Jaquelyn McCandless
Successful Trial of Low Dose Naltrexone for Crohn's
2008 Phase II (trial
website) and Pediatric
Met-enkephalin therapy for autoimmune diseases: Selective
immunomodulation and extention of steroid therapy
This human study was done in Croatia, 1997, and found
positive effects across multiple autoimmune conditions,
such as "significant reduction in the number and severity of relapses".
Met-enkephalin is the
beta-endorphin released by LDN, which may play a role in returning the
immune system to homeostasis.
Publications & articles related to LDN
Opioid growth factor suppresses expression of experimental
Zagon IS, Rahn KA, Bonneau RH, Turel AP, McLaughlin PJ.
Brain Res. 2010 Jan 15;1310:154-61.
the National MS Society.
Penn State has a long research history with "opiod growth factor"
(invoked via LDN), and human trials for
Glutamate Excess in Multiple Sclerosis Variants: Why LDN
11/3/08 Elaine Moore
reports on new research from Mayo Clinic that
supports Dr. Agrawal's 2005 LDN/MS hypothesis (see below).
dose naltrexone therapy in multiple sclerosis
Medical Hypotheses, 2005;64(4):721-4, Y.P.
Use of LDN for MS, Crohn's, and Other Autoimmune Diseases
by Elaine Moore,
who has published extensively on autoimmunity.
A Case of Remission from Crohn's Disease with LDN.
Jeffrey Dach, MD
Possible importance of antibiotics and naltrexone in
(email for copy of article)
European Journal of Neurology 2005, 12: 1, Y.P. Agrawal
Jan 2005: Interview
with LDN researcher Dr. Agrawal (PDF)
Interviewed by Robert
Lester, published by the Boston Cure Project
Beta endorphin concentrations in PBMC of patients with different clinical
phenotypes of multiple sclerosis.
Gironi's research found lowered endorphins in MS patients. LDN
endorphins, our own endogenous opiates, which may
have a modulating
effect on the immune system (see below).
How LDN helps fight Lyme Ken Singleton, M.D.
of Interferon Non-Response
If you are trying to
decide whether to continue Interferons or switch to LDN
Imiquimod, An Immune Response Modifier, Is Dependent On
The OGF-OGFr Signaling Pathway -
Exp Biol Med, Aug 2008
The role of glutamate transporters in neurodegenerative diseases and
potential opportunities for intervention.
Neurochem Int. 2007 Apr 19,
Sheldon AL, Robinson MB.
A team including JS Hong at the National Institutes of
Health has been researching the neuroprotective effects other compounds
similar to Naltrexone:
of Microglia in Inflammation-Mediated Neurodegenerative Diseases:
Mechanisms and Strategies for Therapeutic Intervention
of nitric oxide in inflammation-mediated neurodegeneration
Inhibition by naloxone stereoisomers of beta-amyloid peptide
(1-42)-induced superoxide production in microglia and degeneration of
cortical and mesencephalic neurons
Dextromethorphan Protects Dopaminergic Neurons against
Inflammation-Mediated Degeneration through Inhibition of Microglial
Is MS an Autoimmune Disease?
Many of the FDA approved treatments for MS are
immune suppressants, aimed at down-regulating what is
thought to be an overactive immune system that is attacking
the myelin sheath. It is speculated that LDN works by
placing the immune system back into normal mode, or
homeostasis. While this may be at odds with the autoimmune
theory, recent research is calling into question the
traditional definition of MS.
Popular Hypothesis Concerning Emergence Of Multiple
Sclerosis Contested ScienceDaily, Dec 2008.
Journal reference: Haak et al. IL-17A and IL-17F do not
contribute vitally to autoimmune neuro-inflammation in mice.
Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2008
Discussion on the developing science of